Saturday, September 29, 2012
Importance of erythropoietin in brain protection after cardiac surgery: a pilot study; Lakic N, Surlan K, Jerin A, Meglic B, Curk N, Bunc M; Heart Surgery Forum 13 (3), E185-9 (Jun 2010)
BACKGROUND: Neurologic complications after cardiac operations present an important medical problem, as well as a financial burden. They increase the morbidity and hospital stays of patients who have otherwise undergone successful heart operations. The current protocols for perioperative brain protection against ischemic events are not optimal. Because of its different pleiotropic mechanisms of action, recombinant human erythropoietin might provide neuroprotection. METHODS: In this study, we included 20 patients who were older than 18 years and required surgical revascularization of the heart with the use of the heart-lung machine. Ten patients received 3 consecutive intravenous doses (24,000 IU) of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo). Neurologic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were done before and in the first 5 days after surgery. RESULTS: The erythropoietin-treated and control groups were comparable with respect to study protocol outcomes: number of coronary artery bypass grafts (3.3 and 3.2 grafts/patient, respectively), operative time (4.12 and 4.6 hours), and transfusion volume per patient (708 and 674 mL). The groups were also comparable with respect to blood pressure values at all stages of the operation. MRI scans revealed that 4 of 10 patients from the control group had fresh ischemic brain lesions after open heart surgery. None of the patients in the erythropoietin-treated group had fresh ischemic brain lesions. CONCLUSION: Although the number of patients was small, the results regarding brain protection with rHuEpo are encouraging. rHuEpo is a promising neuroprotective agent.
Hand stereotypies distinguish Rett syndrome from autism disorder; Goldman S, Temudo T; Movement Disorders (Jun 2012)
Management of Cluster Headache; Tfelt-Hansen PC, Jensen RH; CNS Drugs (Jun 2012)
Polymicrobial brain abscess in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler's disease)]; Polak P, Snopkova S, Husa P; Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 137 (33), 1635-8 (Aug 2012)
History and admission findings: A 38-year-old woman who suffered from migraine was admitted because of severe, worsening headache for 24 hours (dissimilar to the previous migraine attacks), with impaired vision and weakness of the right arm. Mild hemiparesis and expressive aphasia indicated an intracranial tumor.Investigations: Cranial computed tomography revealed a focal lesion with a diameter of 2.5 cm in the left frontoparietal lobe, with signs of intracranial hypertension, indicating cerebral metastasis or an abscess. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of a brain abscess.Treatment and course: An urgent craniotomy was performed and the abscess was evacuated. An empirical antibiotic combination with chloramphenicole and metronidazole (switched to cefotaxime because of thrombocytopenia) was initiated. Cultivation of pus revealed Streptococcus constellatus, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus and Fusobacterium spp. Within the first two weeks of treatment progession of the abscess was noted, therefore a second craniotomy with debridement was performed. An elective CT-angio scan revealed several arteriovenous malformations in the caudal segments of both lungs which were embolized without complications. Only retrospectively, cutaneous teleangiectasias were recognized. At present, the patient and her direct relatives are submitted to genetical screening for Osler's disease.Conclusion: In patients with brain abscesses of unknown origin and with a history of repeated epistaxis and/or gastrointestinal bleeding, Osler's disease (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia) should be considered and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations excluded. Physicians should search for cutaneous or mucous teleangiectasias. Family screening and long-term follow-up according to international guidelines is recommended.
Omega-3 fatty acids are protective against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial; Ghoreishi Z, Esfahani A, Djazayeri A, Djalali M, Golestan B, Ayromlou H, Hashemzade S, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Montazeri V, Keshavarz SA; BMC Cancer 12 (1), 355 (Aug 2012)
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Axonal sensory peripheral neuropathy is the major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel.Omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on neurological disorders from their effects on neurons cells and inhibition of the formation of proinflammatory cytokines involved in peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: This study was a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing incidence and severity of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN). Eligible patients with breast cancer randomly assigned to take omega-3 fatty acid pearls, 640 mg t.i.d during chemotherapy with paclitaxel and one month after the end of the treatment or placebo. Clinical and electrophysiological studies were performed before the onset of chemotherapy and one month after cessation of therapy to evaluate PIPN based on"reduced Total Neuropathy Score". RESULTS: Twenty one patients (70 %) of the group taking omega-3 fatty acid supplement (n = 30) did not develop PN while it was 40.7 %( 11 patients) in the placebo group(n = 27). A significant difference was seen in PN incidence (OR = 0.3, .95 % CI = (0.10-0.88), p = 0.029). There was a non-significant trend for differences of PIPN severity between the two study groups but the frequencies of PN in all scoring categories were higher in the placebo group (0.95 % CI = ([MINUS SIGN]2.06 -0.02), p = 0.054). CONCLUSIONS: Omega-3 fatty acids may be an efficient neuroprotective agent for prophylaxis against PIPN. Patients with breast cancer have a longer disease free survival rate with the aid of therapeutical agents. Finding a way to solve the disabling effects of PIPN would significantly improve the patients' quality of life.Trial registrationThis trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01049295).
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of antidepressants in Parkinson disease; Richard IH, McDermott MP, Kurlan R, Lyness JM, Como PG, Pearson N, Factor SA, Juncos J, Serrano Ramos C, Brodsky M, Manning C, Marsh L, Shulman L, Fernandez HH, Black KJ, Panisset M, Christine CW, Jiang W, Singer C, Horn S, Pfeiffer R, Rottenberg D, Slevin J, Elmer L, Press D, Hyson HC, McDonald W, For the SAD-PD Study Group; Neurology 78 (16), 1229-1236 (Apr 2012)
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) in the treatment of depression in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: A total of 115 subjects with PD were enrolled at 20 sites. Subjects were randomized to receive an SSRI (paroxetine; n = 42), an SNRI (venlafaxine extended release [XR]; n = 34), or placebo (n = 39). Subjects met DSM-IV criteria for a depressive disorder, or operationally defined subsyndromal depression, and scored>12 on the first 17 items of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Subjects were followed for 12 weeks (6-week dosage adjustment, 6-week maintenance). Maximum daily dosages were 40 mg for paroxetine and 225 mg for venlafaxine XR. The primary outcome measure was change in the HAM-D score from baseline to week 12. RESULTS: Treatment effects (relative to placebo), expressed as mean 12-week reductions in HAM-D score, were 6.2 points (97.5% confidence interval [CI] 2.2 to 10.3, p = 0.0007) in the paroxetine group and 4.2 points (97.5% CI 0.1 to 8.4, p = 0.02) in the venlafaxine XR group. No treatment effects were seen on motor function. CONCLUSIONS: Both paroxetine and venlafaxine XR significantly improved depression in subjects with PD. Both medications were generally safe and well tolerated and did not worsen motor function. Classification of Evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that paroxetine and venlafaxine XR are effective in treating depression in patients with PD.