Thursday, November 15, 2007

A 16 year old girl with progressive weakness of the let leg

Hahn AF, Mauermann ML, Dyck PJB, Keegan BM/ CPC. Neurology2007;69:84-90. Insidious onset of left LE weakness started at age 13, progressing to complete footdrop. She had normal sensation and reflexes. She had gobs of negative tests. Motor exam showed mild weakness in posterior tibialis and hamstring, severe weakness in the tibialis anterior, to extensors and peroneii, and normal gastrocnemius and toe flexors. She had mild pes cavus. EMG showed normal left tibial nerve conductions, left peroneal motor and surals were absent or severely abnormal. Needle testing showed marked denervation distal to the short head of the biceps. QST's were normal. MRI showed mild increase int he size and signal intensity of the left peroneal nerve in the peroneal division only. Anatomic localization implicated the common peroneal nerve or divisional sciatic nerve. Discussant notes that the tibial and peroneal divisions of the sciatic nerve are segregated as the sciatic nerve passes from the sciatic notch, so a sciatic lesion can mimic a peroneal neuropathy. In such cases needle EMG of the short head of the biceps is crucial. MRI neuronography showed enlarged peroneal nerve ipsilaterally. The diagnosis on biopsy of the nerve was intraneural perineuroma (aka localized hypertrophic mononeuropathy). It presents as a painless motor mononeuropathy in younger patients in a variety of nerves (posterior interosseous, radial ulnar). MRI differentiates from fibrolipomatous hamartoma, but not intraneural ganglion cysts. Intraoperatively, internal neurolysis can suggest the diagnosis also. Unlike true onion bulbs, which are S100 positive, these are S100 negative and EMA positive.

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