Saturday, September 29, 2012

Cogan syndrome: analysis of reported neurologic manifestations

Antonios N, Silliman S.  The Neurologist 2012; 18:55-62
This is a review paper/,eta-analysis of all reported cased.  Cogan syndrome, or  non-syphilitic ocular keratitis and vestibuloauditory dysfunction, is diagnosed clinically not by any test, except to exclude other conditions.  353 cases were reviewed. 
Hearing loss, usually high tone SN hearing loss, may start unilaterally but almost always becomes bilateral and is followed by dizziness or vertigo (90 %), nausea and vomiting, and may mimic Meniere's syndrome.  It has a fluctuating and progressive course and can recur after as much as 13 years.  Interstitial keratitis occurs in 77 %, often as the second major symptom complex, often starting with scleral redness, photophobia, eye pain, decreased acuity, due to corneal clouding and may be fluctuating from day to day.  Less common symptoms iclude iritis,uveitis, cataracts, scleritis, conjunctivitis and others.Slit lamp shows corneal stromal scarring and neovascularization. 
Systemic symptoms that may occur include fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, arthritis, polychondritis, aortitis, and others.
Vestibulocohlear/ocular diseases that can be excluded include Susac's syndrome, GCA, lupus, relapsing polychondritis, Churg-Strauss and Behcet's.   Hearing loss is usually permanent and occurs in first three years,  Topical steroids can be used to preserve vision and topical atropine to reduce eye pain.
Neurological involvement (not counting above symptoms) occur in 29 % and include CNS such as stroke, encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, myelopathy, cerebral venous thrombosis and optic nerve disorders.  PNS symptoms are just as common and include cranial neuropathy , especially facial paresis, mononeuropathy, peripheral neuropathy and myopathy. 
Authors analyze reports and doubt trueness of reports of ischemic stroke of CVST although acknowledge most of the rest of the above.  Pathology may show arteritic changes.  Treatment with 1 mg/kg prednisone is helpful.

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