Monday, October 06, 2008

Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy s (PRES) PEARLS

First described at Tufts University Department of Neurology, 1996, by Judy Hinchey, Claudia Chaves et al.

1. Associations:
cytotoxic drugs (steroids, mtx, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, imuran)
malignant hypertension
NMO (neuromyelitis optica or NMO spectrum disorder)
autoimmune disease
multiple organ dysfunction especially renal
2.  MRI pearls
--spares the calcarine cortex whereas stroke affects midline calcarine cortex
--may also affect frontal lobes, basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum
--no relationship between clinical severity, association, and location of lesions

3. treatment
remove drug
mag sulfate
control blood pressure

4 Review article Mayo Clin Proceedings May 2010 85:5: 427-432
120 cases in 113 patients over several years
-- may self resolve, but substantial Mortality and morbidity due to potential complications including massive infarction, hemorrhage, status epilepticus.
--hypertension present in 74 percent, but only 46 % of those had a history of chronic hypertension
--renal failure present in 57 %, but only half of those had chronic renal insufficiency
--clinical presentations included seizures in 74 % (partial or generalized, only rarely with history of seizures), 18 % with status epilepticus, 28 % with encephalopathy, 26 % with headaches, and 20 % with visual disturbances
-- Autoimmune disease was present in 45 %, of whom three fourths were women.These included TTP (27 %), SLE (18 %), hypothyroid (10 %), scleroderma (6%), Crohn's disease (6 %), ulcerative colitis or sclerosing cholangitis (4 %), RA (4%), DM ( 4%), and 1 patient each or 2 % for Graves' disease,  Hashimoto's thyroiditis, APL syndrome, anti glomerular basement disease, autoimmune hepatitis, polyarteritis nodosa, thromboangitis obliterans, polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, Sjogren's, gfrnulomatous interstitial nephritis, NMO
-- Of patients with autoimmune disease, 65 % had cerebellar involvement, and majority of septic patients had involvement of the cerebrum.
-- transplant and chemo and pediatric populations not represented in above article

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