Sunday, April 22, 2007

Delirium due to consuming toner cartridge cleaner

Tancredi DN , Shannon MW. Case 30-2003: A 21 year old man with sudden alteration of mental status. The patient was a 21 year old who b had been drinking, then acted strangely, smelled of urine, awake and noncommunicative. Pupils were reactive. Iv droperidol resulted in coma, then hyperagitation. He had consumed laser printer toner cartridge cleaner to augment the effects of alcohol, that is metabolized to GABA. He awoke and insisted on leaving.
Discussion comments on gamma hydroxybutyrate that was used in the 1980s by bodybuilders, enhanced ethanol,date rape drug, but is still manufactured illegally, quite easily, at home. Criminalization led to the use of congeners. Gamma butyrolactone has since been restricted. Gamma valerolactone is a solvent in industrial applications. This patient took 1,4 butanediol which is used in compact disc and printer cleaners, but is legal. It metabolizes to gamma hydroxybutyrate which acts at specific receptors and at the GABA b receptor. Intoxication shows about one third have hypothermia, bradycardia, or both, are inebriated with an agitated delirium. Severe effects are coma and apnea, which uniquely, resolves extremely rapidly with a return to awareness. Amnesia occurs. Ethanol inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase, halting the metabolism of 1,4 butanediol. There may be a biphasic period of risk of coma due to interactions and patients should have prolonged observation. Treatment is supportive. Studies are underway using 4-methylpyrazole (fomepazole) an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor also being studied in methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication. More clinical information can be found here:

See discussion of SSADH here:


Neurodoc said...

Designer drug list includes GHB, MDMA, flunitrazepam, and ketamine. GHB is reviewed by Snead OC, Gibson KM. Drug Therapy. Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid. NEJM 2005; 352: 2721-2732.

China Goods News Blog Weekly said...

GHB is Gamma Hydroxybutyrate. A clear liquid taken for its euphoric and relaxing effects.